Therapies

Bevacizumab

Avastin

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SUMMARY

Company: Genentech
Approval Status: FDA/EMA Approved February 2004
Specific Treatments: Colorectal Cancer
Drug: Bevacizumab

 

General Information

Avastin is an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody for the treatment of solid tumors.

Avastin, used in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, is indicated for first-line treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum.

The recommended dose of Avastin is 5 mg/kg given once every 14 days as an IV infusion until disease progression is detected.

 

Clinical Results

FDA approval of Avastin for Colorectal Cancer was based on two (STUDY 1 / STUDY 2) randomized, controlled trials in combination with intravenous 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy.

Study 1 was a double-blind trial enrolling 813 subjects with metastatic carcinoma of the colon or rectum. Subjects were randomized to bolus-IFL (irinotecan 125 mg/m2 IV, 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2 IV, and leucovorin 20 mg/m2 IV given once weekly for 4 weeks every 6 weeks) plus placebo (Arm 1), bolus-IFL plus Avastin (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks) (Arm 2) or 5-FU/LV plus Avastin (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks) (Arm 3). Among the subjects, 57% had an ECOG performance status of 0. The primary endpoint of this trial was overall survival. Results showed that the overall survival in Arms 1 & 2 was 20.3 months with Avastin compared with 15.6 months with placebo. The median progression-free survival was 10.6 months with Avastin compared with 6.4 months with placebo. Data showed that the median overall survival in Arm 3 was 18.3 months, median progression-free survival was 8.8 months, overall response rate was 39%, and median duration of response was 8.5 months.

Study 2 tested Avastin in combination with 5-FU/LV and enrolled as first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Subjects were randomized to receive 5-FU/LV (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, leucovorin 500 mg/m2 weekly for 6 weeks every 8 weeks) or 5-FU/LV plus Avastin (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks) or 5-FU/LV plus Avastin (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks). The primary endpoints of the trial were objective response rate and progression-free survival. Results showed that progression-free survival was significantly better in subjects receiving 5-FU/LV plus Avastin at 5 mg/kg when compared to those not receiving Avastin. However, overall survival and overall response rate were not significantly different. Results for subjects receiving 5-FU/LV plus Avastin at 10 mg/kg were not significantly different than without Avastin.

 

Side Effects

Adverse events associated with the use of Avastin may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Asthenia
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Pain
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis
  • Hypertension
  • Intra-Abdominal Thrombosis
  • Syncope
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Leukopenia
  • Neutropenia

 

Mechanism of Action

Bevacizumab binds VEGF and prevents the interaction of VEGF to its receptors (Flt-1 and KDR) on the surface of endothelial cells. The interaction of VEGF with its receptors leads to endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation in in vitro models of angiogenesis.

In preclinical studies, administration of bevacizumab to xenotransplant models of colon cancer in nude mice caused reduction of microvascular growth and inhibition of metastatic disease progression. In January 2000, preclinical results showed that bevacizumab was more effective at preventing growth of tumor cell lines in animal models when it was combined with sub-threshold doses of cisplatin or trastuzumab.

Source: centerwatch