Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in an ovary. It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. When this process begins, there may be no or only vague symptoms. Symptoms become more noticeable as the cancer progresses. These symptoms may include bloating, pelvic pain, and abdominal swelling, among others. Common areas to which the cancer may spread include the lining of the abdomen, lining of the bowel and bladder, lymph nodes, lungs, and liver.
The risk of ovarian cancer increases in women who have ovulated more over their lifetime. This includes those who have never had children, those who begin ovulation at a younger age or reach menopause at an older age. Other risk factors include hormone therapy after menopause, fertility medication, and obesity. Factors that decrease risk include hormonal birth control, tubal ligation, and breast feeding. About 10% of cases are related to inherited genetic risk; women with mutations in the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 have about a 50% chance of developing the disease. The most common type of ovarian cancer, comprising more than 95% of cases, is ovarian carcinoma. There are five main subtypes of ovarian carcinoma, of which high-grade serous is most common. These tumors are believed to start in the cells covering the ovaries, though some may form at the Fallopian tubes. Less common types of ovarian cancer include germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors. A diagnosis of ovarian cancer is confirmed through a biopsy of tissue, usually removed during surgery.
Screening is not recommended in women who are at average risk, as evidence does not support a reduction in death and the high rate of false positive tests may lead to unneeded surgery, which is accompanied by its own risks. Those at very high risk may have their ovaries removed as a preventive measure. If caught and treated in an early stage, ovarian cancer may be curable. Treatment usually includes some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Outcomes depend on the extent of the disease and the subtype of the cancer present. The overall five-year survival rate in the United States is 45%. Outcomes are worse in the developing world.
In 2012, ovarian cancer occurred in 239,000 women and resulted in 152,000 deaths worldwide. This makes it, among women, the seventh-most common cancer and the eighth-most common cause of death from cancer. Death from ovarian cancer is more common in North America and Europe than in Africa and Asia.
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer are frequently absent in early stages; even when they do exist, they may be subtle. In most cases, symptoms exist for several months before being recognized and diagnosed, or they may initially be misdiagnosed as a condition such as irritable bowel syndrome. The early stages of ovarian cancer tend to be painless unless the growing mass causes ovarian torsion. Early symptoms can include bloating, abdominopelvic pain, and pain in the side. The most typical symptoms of ovarian cancer include bloating, abdominal or pelvic pain or discomfort, back pain, irregular menstruation or postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, pain or bleeding after or during sexual intercourse, difficulty eating, loss of appetite, fatigue, diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn, constipation, nausea, early satiety, and possibly urinary symptoms (including frequent urination and urgent urination); typically these symptoms are caused by a mass pressing on the other abdominopelvic organs or from metastases. If these symptoms start to occur more often or more severely than usual, especially after no significant history of such symptoms, ovarian cancer should be considered. Metastases may cause a Sister Mary Joseph nodule.
In adolescents or children with ovarian tumors, the presenting symptoms can include severe abdominal pain, irritation of the peritoneum, or bleeding. As the cancer becomes more advanced, it can cause an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen. If the malignancy has not been diagnosed by the time it causes ascites, it is typically diagnosed shortly thereafter. Advanced cancers can also cause abdominal masses, lymph node masses, or pleural effusion.
Ovarian cancer symptoms can vary based on the subtype. Low malignant potential (LMP) tumors, also known as borderline tumors, do not cause an increase in CA125 levels and are not identifiable with an ultrasound. The typical symptoms of a LMP tumor can include abdominal distension or pelvic pain. Particularly large masses tend to be benign or borderline. Rarely, teratomas can cause growing teratoma syndrome or peritoneal gliomatosis. The symptoms of sex cord-stromal tumors belie their ability to produce hormones. In prepubertal children, early puberty is the main symptom; abdominal pain and distension are also common. Rather than early puberty, adolescents with sex cord-stromal tumors may experience amenorrhea. Adults instead experience menometrorrhagia and abnormal vaginal bleeding after menopause in most cases. Other common symptoms include hirsutism, abdominal pain, virilization, and an adnexal mass.
Most of the risk for ovarian cancer is related to the amount of time spent in ovulation. Thus not having children is a risk factor for ovarian cancer, likely because ovulation is not suppressed via pregnancy. Both obesity and hormone replacement therapy also raise the risk.
Things that halt ovulation: breast feeding, oral contraceptive use with estrogen/progesterone combination meds, multiple pregnancies, and pregnancy at an early age, all decrease risk of ovarian cancer. These conditions decrease the overall time during one’s lifetime spent ovulating. A positive family history of ovarian cancer is a risk factor for ovarian cancer. People with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (Lynch Syndrome), and those with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genetic abnormalities are at increased risk.
Use of fertility medication may contribute to borderline ovarian tumor formation, but the link between the two is disputed and difficult to study. Fertility drugs may be associated with a higher risk of borderline tumors. Those who have been treated for infertility but remain nulliparous are at higher risk for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, those who are successfully treated for infertility and subsequently give birth are at no higher risk. This may be due to shedding of precancerous cells during pregnancy, but the cause remains unclear. The risk factor may instead be infertility itself, not the treatment.
Hormonal conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis are associated with ovarian cancer, but the link is not completely confirmed. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen likely increases the risk of ovarian cancer. The association has not been confirmed in a large-scale study, but notable studies including the Million Women Study have supported this link. Postmenopausal HRT with combined estrogen and progesterone may increase contemporaneous risk if used for over 5 years, but this risk returns to normal after cessation of therapy. Estrogen HRT with or without progestins increases the risk of endometrioid and serous tumors but lowers the risk of mucinous tumors. Higher doses of estrogen increase this risk.
Long periods of continuous ovulation are thought to be the main non-genetic cause of epithelial ovarian cancer. This is because during the cells are constantly stimulated to divide while ovulatory cycles continue. Therefore, people who have not borne children are at twice the risk of ovarian cancer than those who have. A longer period of ovulation caused by early first menstruation or late menopause is also a risk factor.
Endometriosis is another risk factor for ovarian cancer, as is pain with menstruation. Endometriosis is associated with clear-cell and endometrioid subtypes, low-grade serous tumors, stage I and II tumors, grade 1 tumors, and lower mortality.
Before menopause, obesity can increase a person’s risk of ovarian cancer, but this risk is not present after menopause. This risk is also relevant in those who are both obese and have never used HRT. A similar association with ovarian cancer appears in taller people.
In general, a family history of ovarian cancer can indicate a predisposition to developing it. The major genetic risk factor for ovarian cancer is a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 DNA mismatch repair genes, which is present in 10% of ovarian cancer cases. Only one allele need be mutated to place a person at high risk, because the risky mutations are autosomal dominant. The gene can be inherited through either the maternal or paternal line, but has variable penetrance. Though mutations in these genes are usually associated with increased risk of breast cancer, they also carry a substantial lifetime risk of ovarian cancer, a risk that peaks in a person’s 40s and 50s. The lowest risk cited is 30% and the highest 60%. Mutations in BRCA1 have a lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 15-45%. Mutations in BRCA2 are less risky than those with BRCA1, with a lifetime risk of 10% (lowest risk cited) to 40% (highest risk cited). On average, BRCA-associated cancers develop 15 years before their sporadic counterparts, because people who inherit the mutations on one copy of their gene only need one mutation to start the process of carcinogenesis, whereas people with two normal genes would need to acquire two mutations.
In the United States, five of 100 women with a first-degree relative with ovarian cancer will eventually get ovarian cancer themselves, placing those with affected family members at triple the risk of women with unaffected family members. Seven of 100 women with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer will eventually get ovarian cancer. In general, 5-10% of ovarian cancer cases have a genetic cause. BRCA mutations are associated with high-grade serous nonmucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.
A strong family history of endometrial cancer, colon cancer, or other gastrointestinal cancers may indicate the presence of a syndrome known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (also known as Lynch syndrome), which confers a higher risk for developing a number of cancers, including ovarian cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in mismatch repair genes, including MSH2, MLH1, MLH6, PMS1, and PMS2. The risk of ovarian cancer for an individual with Lynch syndrome is between 10 and 12 percent. People of Icelandic descent, European Jewish descent/Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and Hungarian descent are at higher risk for epithelial ovarian cancer. Other genes that have been associated with ovarian cancer are BRIP1, MSH6, RAD51C and RAD51D. CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2 and RAD50 have also been associated with ovarian cancer.
Several rare genetic disorders are associated with specific subtypes of ovarian cancer. Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, a rare genetic disorder, also predisposes people to sex cord tumour with annular tubules. Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are associated with granulosa cell tumors in children and may also be associated with Sertoli-Leydig tumors. Benign fibromas are associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Industrialized nations, with the exception of Japan, have high rates of epithelial ovarian cancer, which may be due to diet in those countries. White people are at a 30-40% higher risk for ovarian cancer when compared to Black and Hispanic people, likely due to socioeconomic factors: White women tend to have fewer children and different rates of gynecologic surgeries that affect risk for ovarian cancer.
Cohort studies have found a correlation between dairy consumption and ovarian cancer, but case-control studies do not show this correlation. There is mixed evidence regarding the effect of red meat and processed meat in ovarian cancer.
Alcohol consumption does not appear to be related to ovarian cancer. Other factors that have been investigated, such as smoking, high levels of vitamin D in the blood, presence of inclusion ovarian cysts, and infection with human papilloma virus (the cause of some cases of cervical cancer), have been disproven as risk factors for ovarian cancer. The carcinogenicity of perineal talc is controversial, because it can act as an irritant if it travels through the reproductive tract to the ovaries. Case-control studies have shown that use of perineal talc does increase the risk of ovarian cancer, but using talc more often does not create a greater risk. Use of talc elsewhere on the body is unrelated to ovarian cancer. Sitting regularly for prolonged periods is associated with higher mortality from epithelial ovarian cancer. The risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered.
Increased age (up to the 70s) is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer because more mutations in cells can accumulate and eventually cause cancer. Those over 80 are at slightly lower risk.
Smoking tobacco is associated with a higher risk of mucinous ovarian cancer; after smoking cessation, the risk eventually returns to normal.A diet high in animal fats may be associated with ovarian cancer, but the connection is unclear. Diet seems to play a very small role, if any, in ovarian cancer risk.
Trans men who have ovaries may be at higher risk of ovarian cancer, but the reason for this is unknown. Potential factors include testosterone therapy and lower rates of protective factors.
Higher levels of C-reactive protein are associated with a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.
Suppression of ovulation, which would otherwise cause damage to the ovarian epithelium and, consequently, inflammation, is generally protective. This effect can be achieved by having children, taking combined oral contraceptives, and breast feeding, all of which are protective factors. A longer period of breastfeeding correlates with a larger decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer. Each birth decreases risk of ovarian cancer more, and this effect is seen with up to five births. Combined oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by up to 50%, and the protective effect of combined oral contraceptives can last 25–30 years after they are discontinued. Regular use of aspirin or acetaminophen (paracetamol) may be associated with a lower risk of ovarian cancer; other NSAIDs do not seem to have a similar protective effect.
Tubal ligation is protective because carcinogens are unable to reach the ovary and fimbriae via the vagina, uterus, and Fallopian tubes. Tubal ligation is also protective in women with the BRCA1 mutation, but not the BRCA2 mutation. Hysterectomy reduces the risk, and removal of both Fallopian tubes and ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) dramatically reduces the risk of not only ovarian cancer, but breast cancer as well. This is still a topic of research, as the link between hysterectomy and lower ovarian cancer risk is controversial. The reasons that hysterectomy may be protective have not been elucidated as of 2015.
A diet that includes large amounts of carotene, fiber, and vitamins with low amounts of fat—specifically, a diet with non-starchy vegetables (e.g. broccoli and onions)—may be protective, though research is still ongoing in this area. Higher caffeine intake and consumption of more than two cups of tea a day have both been associated with lower ovarian cancer risk. Smoking tobacco is protective for sex cord-stromal tumors.
Ovarian cancer forms when errors in normal ovarian cell growth occur. Usually, when cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Cancer starts when new cells form unneeded, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. These abnormal cancer cells have many genetic abnormalities that cause them to grow excessively. When an ovary releases an egg, the egg follicle bursts open and becomes the corpus luteum. This structure needs to be repaired by dividing cells in the ovary. Continuous ovulation for a long time means more repair of the ovary by dividing cells, which can acquire mutations in each division.
Overall, the most common gene mutations in ovarian cancer occur in NF1, BRCA1, BRCA2, and CDK12. Type I ovarian cancers, which tend to be less aggressive, tend to have microsatellite instability in several genes, including both oncogenes (most notably BRAF and KRAS) and tumor suppressors (most notably PTEN). The most common mutations in Type I cancers are KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, PTEN, PIK3CA, and ARID1A. Type II cancers, the more aggressive type, have different genes mutated, including p53, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Low-grade cancers tend to have mutations in KRAS, whereas cancers of any grade that develop from low malignant potential tumors tend to have mutations in p53. Type I cancers tend to develop from precursor lesions, whereas Type II cancers can develop from a serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Serous cancers that have BRCA mutations also inevitably have p53 mutations, indicating that the removal of both functional genes is important for cancer to develop.
In 50% of high-grade serous cancers, homologous recombination DNA repair is dysfunctional, as are the notch and FOXM1 signaling pathways. They also almost always have p53 mutations. Other than this, mutations in high-grade serous carcinoma are hard to characterize beyond their high degree of genomic instability. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are essential for homologous recombination DNA repair, and germline mutations in these genes are found in about 15% of people with ovarian cancer. The most common mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the frameshift mutations that originated in a small founding population of Ashkenazi Jews.
Autophagy regulator beclin-1 has been implicated in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis and tumor progression; it has one copy deleted in many ovarian tumors.
Almost 100% of rare mucinous carcinomas have mutations in KRAS and amplifications of ERBB2 (also known as Her2/neu). Overall, 20% of ovarian cancers have mutations in Her2/neu.
Serous carcinomas may develop from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma, rather than developing spontaneously from ovarian tissue. Other carcinomas develop from cortical inclusion cysts, which are groups of epithelial ovarian cells inside the stroma.
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer starts with a physical examination (including a pelvic examination), a blood test (for CA-125 and sometimes other markers), and transvaginal ultrasound. Sometimes a rectovaginal examination is used to help plan a surgery. The diagnosis must be confirmed with surgery to inspect the abdominal cavity, take biopsies (tissue samples for microscopic analysis), and look for cancer cells in the abdominal fluid. This helps to determine if an ovarian mass is benign or malignant.
Ovarian cancer’s early stages (I/II) are difficult to diagnose because most symptoms are nonspecific and thus of little use in diagnosis; as a result, it is rarely diagnosed until it spreads and advances to later stages (III/IV). Additionally, symptoms of ovarian cancer may appear similar to irritable bowel syndrome. In patients in whom pregnancy is a possibility, BHCG level should be measured during the diagnosis process. Serum alpha-fetoprotein, neuron-specific enolase, and lactate dehydrogenase should be measured in young girls and adolescents with suspected ovarian tumors as younger patients are more likely to have malignant germ cell tumors.
A physical examination, including a pelvic examination, and a pelvic ultrasound (transvaginal or otherwise) are both essential for diagnosis: physical examination may reveal increased abdominal girth and/or ascites (fluid within the abdominal cavity), while pelvic examination may reveal an ovarian or abdominal mass. An adnexal mass is a significant finding that often indicates ovarian cancer, especially if it is fixed, nodular, irregular, solid, and/or bilateral. 13-21% of adnexal masses are caused by malignancy; however, there are other benign causes of adnexal masses, including ovarian follicular cyst, leiomyoma, endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, hydrosalpinx, tuboovarian abscess, ovarian torsion, dermoid cyst, cystadenoma (serous or mucinous), diverticular or appendiceal abscess, nerve sheath tumor, pelvic kidney, ureteral or bladder diverticulum, benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum, peritoneal tuberculosis, or paraovarian cyst. Ovaries that can be felt are also a sign of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women. Other parts of a physical examination for suspected ovarian cancer can include a breast examination and a digital rectal exam. Palpation of the supraclavicular, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes may reveal lymphadenopathy, which can be indicative of metastasis. Another indicator may be the presence of a pleural effusion, which can be noted on auscultation.
When an ovarian malignancy is included in a list of diagnostic possibilities, a limited number of laboratory tests are indicated. A complete blood count and serum electrolyte test should be obtained in all patients; when an ovarian cancer is present, these tests often show a high number of platelets (20-25% of people) and low blood sodium levels due to chemical signals secreted by the tumor. A positive test for inhibin A and inhibin B can indicate a granulosa cell tumor.
A blood test for a marker molecule called CA-125 is useful in differential diagnosis and in follow up of the disease, but it by itself has not been shown to be an effective method to screen for early-stage ovarian cancer due to its unacceptable low sensitivity and specificity. CA-125 levels in premenopausal people over 200 U/mL may indicate ovarian cancer, as may any elevation in CA-125 above 35 U/mL in post-menopausal people. CA-125 levels are not accurate in early stage ovarian cancer, as fully half of stage I ovarian cancer patients have a normal CA-125 level. CA-125 may also be elevated in benign (non-cancerous) conditions, including endometriosis, pregnancy, uterine fibroids, menstruation, ovarian cysts, systemic lupus erythematosus, liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, and leiomyoma. HE4 is another candidate for ovarian cancer testing, though it has not been extensively tested. Other tumor markers for ovarian cancer include CA19-9, CA72-4, CA15-3, immunosuppressive acidic protein, haptoglobin-alpha, OVX1, mesothelin, lysophosphatidic acid, osteopontin, and fibroblast growth factor 23.
Use of blood test panels may help in diagnosis. The OVA1 panel includes CA-125, beta-2 microglobulin, transferrin, apolipoprotein A1, and transthyretin. OVA1 above 5.0 in premenopausal people and 4.4 in postmenopausal people indicates a high risk for cancer. A different set of laboratory tests is used for detecting sex cord-stromal tumors. High levels of testosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, combined with other symptoms and high levels of inhibin A and inhibin B can be indicative of an SCST of any type.
Current research is looking at ways to consider tumor marker proteomics in combination with other indicators of disease (i.e. radiology and/or symptoms) to improve diagnostic accuracy. The challenge in such an approach is that the disparate prevalence of ovarian cancer means that even testing with very high sensitivity and specificity will still lead to a number of false positive results, which in turn may lead to issues such as performing surgical procedures in which cancer is not found intraoperatively. Genomics approaches have not yet been developed for ovarian cancer.
CT scanning is preferred to assess the extent of the tumor in the abdominopelvic cavity, though magnetic resonance imaging can also be used. CT scanning can also be useful for finding omental caking or differentiating fluid from solid tumor in the abdomen, especially in low malignant potential tumors. However, it may not detect smaller tumors. Sometimes, a chest x-ray is used to detect metastases in the chest or pleural effusion. Another test for metastatic disease, though it is infrequently used, is a barium enema, which can show if the rectosigmoid colon is involved in the disease. Positron emission tomography, bone scans, and paracentesis are of limited use; in fact, paracentesis can cause metastases to form at the needle insertion site and may not provide useful results. However, paracentesis can be used in cases where there is no pelvic mass and ascites is still present. A physician suspecting ovarian cancer may also perform mammography or an endometrial biopsy (in the case of abnormal bleeding) to assess the possibility of breast malignancies and endometrial malignancy, respectively. Vaginal ultrasonography is often the first-line imaging study performed when an adnexal mass is found. Several characteristics of an adnexal mass indicate ovarian malignancy; they usually are solid, irregular, multilocular, and/or large; and they typically have papillary features, central vessels, and/or irregular internal septations. However, SCST has no definitive characteristics on radiographic study.
To definitively diagnose ovarian cancer, a surgical procedure to inspect the abdomen is required. This can be an open procedure (laparotomy, incision through the abdominal wall) or keyhole surgery (laparoscopy). During this procedure, suspicious tissue is removed and sent for microscopic analysis. Usually, this includes a unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of a single affected ovary and Fallopian tube. Fluid from the abdominal cavity can also be analyzed for cancerous cells. If cancer is found, this procedure can also be used to determine the extent of its spread (which is a form of tumor staging).
The only screening recommended for all women is an annual pelvic examination. This is not very effective in detecting early ovarian cancer because it is usually only palpable in advanced stages. Ovarian cancer screening is of high clinical interest because the disease is not typically detectable at its early stages, when it is the most curable. Screening is not recommended using CA-125 measurements, HE4 levels, ultrasound, or adnexal palpation in women who are at average risk. Screening for any type of cancer must be accurate and reliable—it needs to accurately detect the disease and it must not give false positive results in people who do not have cancer.
Ovarian cancer has low prevalence, even in the high-risk group of women from the ages of 50 to 60 (about one in 2000), and screening of women with average risk is more likely to give ambiguous results than detect a problem which requires treatment. Because ambiguous results are more likely than detection of a treatable problem, and because the usual response to ambiguous results is invasive interventions, in women of average risk, the potential harms of having screening without an indication outweigh the potential benefits. The purpose of screening is to diagnose ovarian cancer at an early stage, when it is more likely to be treated successfully.
Screening with transvaginal ultrasound, pelvic examination, and CA-125 levels can be used instead of preventative surgery in women who have BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. This strategy has shown some success.
People with strong genetic risk for ovarian cancer may consider the surgical removal of their ovaries as a preventative measure. This is often done after completion of childbearing years. This reduces the chances of developing both breast cancer (by around 50%) and ovarian cancer (by about 96%) in people at high risk. Women with BRCA gene mutations usually also have their Fallopian tubes removed at the same time (salpingo-oophorectomy), since they also have an increased risk of Fallopian tube cancer. However, these statistics may overestimate the risk reduction because of how they have been studied.
People with a significant family history for ovarian cancer are often referred to a genetic counselor to see if they should be tested for BRCA mutations.
Ovarian cancer usually has a relatively poor prognosis. It is disproportionately deadly because it lacks any clear early detection or screening test, meaning most cases are not diagnosed until they have reached advanced stages. However, in some cases, ovarian cancer recurrences are chronically treatable.
Ovarian cancer metastasizes early in its development, often before it has been diagnosed. High-grade tumors metastasize more readily than low-grade tumors. Typically, tumor cells begin to metastasize by growing in the peritoneal cavity. More than 60% of women presenting with ovarian cancer have stage-III or stage-IV cancer, when it has already spread beyond the ovaries. Ovarian cancers shed cells into the naturally occurring fluid within the abdominal cavity. These cells can then implant on other abdominal (peritoneal) structures, included the uterus, urinary bladder, bowel, lining of the bowel wall, and omentum, forming new tumor growths before cancer is even suspected.
The five-year survival rate for all stages of ovarian cancer is 46%; the one-year survival rate is 72% and the ten-year survival rate is 35%. For cases where a diagnosis is made early in the disease, when the cancer is still confined to the primary site, the five-year survival rate is 92.7%. About 70% of women with advanced disease respond to initial treatment, most of whom attain complete remission, but half of these women experience a recurrence 1–4 years after treatment. Brain metastasis is more common in stage III/IV cancer but can still occur in cancers staged at I/II. People with brain metastases survive a median of 8.2 months, though surgery, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation therapy can improve survival.
Ovarian cancer survival varies significantly with subtype. Dysgerminomas have a very favorable prognosis. In early stages, they have a five-year survival rate of 96.9%. Around two-thirds of dysgerminomas are diagnosed at stage I. Stage-III dysgerminomas have a five-year survival of 61%; when treated with BEP chemotherapy after incomplete surgical removal, dysgerminomas have a 95% two-year survival rate. Sex-cord-stromal malignancies also have a favorable prognosis; because they are slow-growing, even those with metastatic disease can survive a decade or more. Low malignant potential tumors usually only have a bad prognosis when there are invasive tumor implants found in the peritoneal cavity.
Complications of ovarian cancer can include spread of the cancer to other organs, progressive function loss of various organs, ascites, and intestinal obstructions, which can be fatal. Intestinal obstructions in multiple sites are the most common proximate cause of death. Intestinal obstruction in ovarian cancer can either be a true obstruction, where tumor blocks the intestinal lumen, or a pseudo-obstruction, when tumor prevents normal peristalsis. Continuous accumulation of ascites can be treated by placing a drain that can be self-drained.